Aedes albopictus, commonly known as tiger mosquito is native to Southeast Asia forests, tropical climate. It now develops mainly in urban areas, suitable for reproduction, and moves little during his life (50 to 200 m around his birthplace). Only female mosquitoes bite during the day, especially at dawn and dusk in the late afternoon, primarily outside of houses. This exotic insect has an estimated activity period from 1 May to 30 November. However, the fight against this mosquito does not stop at the beginning of winter as eggs laid may hatch as soon as weather conditions are favorable, the output * diapause.
The tiger mosquito is small (5-7 mm or smaller than a piece of a euro cent). He spotted a black body with white and white and black rings on its legs, hence the name Tiger. His appearance feature allows easily distinguish local urban mosquitoes. The tiger mosquito flies badly and picnic rather on the legs.
Tiger mosquito In 20 years, this mosquito has colonized the 5 continents! We explain this geographic expansion through the development of international land transport of goods and the international trafficking of used tires - were found eggs of the tiger mosquito in those tires. It was detected in France for the first time in 2004 in the Alpes-Maritimes department. To date, it operates in 30 departments: Ain, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Alpes-Maritimes, Ardèche, Aude, Bouches-du-Rhône, South Corsica and Upper Corsica, Dordogne, Drome, Gard, Haute -Garonne, Gironde, Hérault, Isère, Landes, Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Pyrénées-Orientales, Lower Rhine, Rhône, Saône-et-Loire, Savoie, Tarn, Tarn-et-Garonne, Var , Vaucluse, Vendée and Val-de-Marne. The tiger mosquito is growing steadily in France. "This is an extremely invasive mosquito and can not make him go backwards", informs Grégory L'Ambert, medical entomologist at the Interdepartmental Agreement Démoustification (EID) Mediterranean.
Already because the man is very exposed to mosquito bites during the day: the perceived nuisance is strong. But mainly because it can spread to humans twenty viruses, including dengue and chikungunya, two tropical arboviruses growing steadily worldwide. Chikungunya is a debilitating and painful disease that can cause joint pain for several months. Dengue fever is a benign but still disabling illness (fever, muscle aches and pains are part of a long list of symptoms). In addition, it may be complicated by severe hemorrhagic forms.
The tiger mosquito moves within 50 to 200 meters around his birthplace and lays its eggs in water-filled containers. To avoid having tiger mosquitoes at home if you live in a colonized by this department hopes it is important to remove potential breeding places (the eggs are then transformed into larvae), and therefore to hunt for water stagnant.
For this, do not let outside containers that may be filled with rain water (buckets, children's toys ...), service your home gutters, regularly empty the saucers of flowerpots, cover reserves water (such as rainwater collectors) with a sheet or mosquito net, and, if possible, do not leave it lying on ground green waste in your garden. "The larval development cycle is about a week, so every week you go around your garden and empty standing water, you block the development of the tiger mosquito", informs Grégory L'Ambert. "If the mosquito is present near you, this is the only strategy that really works, more effective than insecticides that may be used, and it is an environmentally friendly way," he insists. This decreases the proliferation of mosquitoes and the risk of being bitten, and prevents the risk of transmission of dengue and chikungunya. Furthermore, in non-colonized territories, remove small stagnant water reservoirs limit the implementation of the tiger mosquito and the development of other local mosquitoes. As well get started right away because the fight is not ready to stop!
If you live in a non-colonized by the tiger mosquito department and that you watch one, you can report its presence on the official website provided you have a photograph of this mosquito or dispose of a live or dead tiger mosquito in condition to be identified. By doing so, you contribute to the monitoring of the implementation of the tiger mosquito.
To protect against mosquito bites tiger, wear long, loose clothing impregnated with insecticides fabric and apply to your skin skin repellents, mosquito that having mostly diurnal activity. Prefer tropical repellents containing DEET, IR3535 and, of Icaridin or citriodiol to keep the tiger mosquito. Ask his opinion to your doctor or pharmacist before using a repellent, especially if you are a pregnant woman or if the product is for your children. DEET is not recommended for children and pregnant women, the IR3535 for children under 30 months.
If you eat outside, put under the table a fan or coil, good repellents. Inside, put the air conditioning is also a good way to scare away mosquitoes.
Dengue fever is manifested by the appearance of an abrupt fever and muscle and joint pain, stiffness, pain behind the eyes, headaches ... Chikungunya by a sudden high fever associated with debilitating joint pain, joint swelling , skin events (rash).
If you have a sudden high fever and joint pain, you're back for less than 15 days of a stay in circulation area of these viruses (especially tropical) and you live in a town colonized by the mosquito -tigre, see the emergency doctor.
No, of course and happily! In metropolitan France, the risk of catching dengue or chikungunya via a tiger mosquito is low. "It takes the combination virus mosquito + + human" explains Grégory L'Ambert. It must be that a person is bitten by a mosquito infected with the two viruses in a country where one of these two disease circulates (Antilles, South America, Southeast Asia, Indian Ocean, Africa) and upon his return it is done by poking a healthy tiger mosquito. This is then infected and can transmit dengue or chikungunya to others after a few days. "Cases of dengue or chikungunya native (that is to say without travel) reported in France are rare . in 2014, four indigenous dengue cases were detected in region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and an Aboriginal household (11 confirmed cases) detected in the Montpellier. the risk, however, is very real. "There are all year, but this year it is rather lower than last year when there was an outbreak of chikungunya in the Caribbean, "said Gregory L'Ambert.
An anti-spread dengue and chikungunya plan is implemented each year by the French authorities since 2006. It includes a human surveillance and entomological (mosquitoes) and measures of prevention and control. "The first step of the plan is the monitoring of mosquitoes: SIA manage about 3000 traps used to monitor the progress of tiger mosquito," says Grégory L'Ambert. "Another part of the plan: monitoring human once the tiger mosquito is installed and you can not do anything about it," he added. This monitoring system includes two perennial national arrangements - the mandatory reporting (DO) cases of dengue and chikungunya and enhanced surveillance of seasonal local device from May 1 to November 30 in the departments in which the tiger is implanted. This device is based on the accelerated reporting of cases of dengue and chikungunya the Regional Health Agencies (ARS). Reporting a case leads to epidemiological investigations (of determining the movements of the infected person) and entomological as well as vector control measures (destruction of breeding sites and, if necessary, treatment to kill adult mosquitoes potentially contaminated within a radius of 150 m). "It does so on the early days of risk", explains entomologist EID Mediterranean.
The diapause: Temporarily stopping the activity or development in insects, in winter or dry season, or in case of food deficiency (Larousse definition).